2022-01-13

Programming Languages

Best programming languages for Backed Development
In this blog you will find the top seven programming languages for back-end development
Dmitry Grechko
Founder

In this ever-changing world of technology, many programming languages are available for developers, from Java to Python to even no-code development tools; however, not all programming languages are suitable for back-end development. Choosing the right language for your project is key in determining the overall success of your project.

This article aims to cover the top seven programming languages for back-end development so that you can choose the right programming language when developing critical applications. It is important to note that no two languages are the same; for instance, Python is an ideal language for beginners and is famous in the startup community due to its ease of use and learning. Meanwhile, JavaScript is commonly a flexible language to write code; it can be tricky to learn and adopt. This being said, let’s dive right into the most commonly used programming languages and their key advantages and disadvantages.

Javascript

Netscape created JavaScript in 1995, and since its creation, it has become a popular programming language used by developers worldwide. JavaScript, also abbreviated as JS, is a client-side scripting language often used for server-side interfaces. JS is used in most web browsers, including Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, and Mozilla Firefox. In recent years there has been an increased interest in JS due to the node.js framework, which has enabled developers to write server-side programs faster. Big tech companies like Facebook, Google, PayPal, and Netflix are some popular companies that use Java in their everyday operations. The reason for its popularity is that Javascript offers developers a wide array of front-end and back-end web development applications. It also offers various object-oriented features that are used in every modern web application. JS is a versatile language that was initially designed as a client-side language but nowadays it is used for both client and server-side.

Advantages of JavaScript:

  • Speed
  • Interoperability
  • Popularity
  • Server load
  • Rich Interfaces
  • Extended Functionality
  • Versatility
  • The disadvantage of using JavaScript:
  • overly complex and unpredictable
  • Client-side security
  • Browser support

Python

Python is a general-purpose language designed to create various applications ranging from data science to web development and automation. Python was launched in 1991, and since then, it has become one of the most popular programming languages worldwide, especially in the startup community and for a good reason! It is compatible with advanced technologies like Machine Learning, the Internet of Things (IoT), and Data Science, making it suitable for back-end web development and many products and applications.

From early-stage startups to multi-national corporations, including Google, NASA, Facebook, and Instagram, have used Python's powerful features to create critical applications. Its popularity can be attributed to its vast collection of standard libraries. The standard library aids in fast development, saving time as developers don't need to write their code for every task. Second, Vectorization also makes Python stand out from other programming languages. It is a technique that represents a sequence of data elements as a single unit called a 'vector' that reduces the execution time and memory usage – both critical factors while working with big data projects. Lastly, Python is on top of the list for web developers when it comes to code readability.

Advantages of using Python:

  • Easy to learn and write code
  • Improved productivity
  • Interpreted Language
  • Dynamically Typed
  • Free and Open-Source
  • Vast Library Support
  • Portability

A disadvantage of using Python:

  • Slow Speed
  • Not memory efficient
  • Weak in mobile computing
  • Database Access
  • Runtime Errors

PHP

PHP is a popular choice in web development, launched in 1994 and is an open-source server-side scripting language used for web development. The essential advantage of PHP is that it is easy to learn, has cross-platform compatibility, does not require a compiler, and can run on every central operating system, including Windows, Linux, macOS, and Unix. PHP also supports various standard databases, including MySQL and SQLite; the downside of PHP is that it is an easy target for hackers, which has led to security concerns over the years.

Advantages of using PHP:

  • The loading speed of websites
  • Advanced database connectivity
  • Extensive collection of open-source add-ons;
  • Inexpensive web hosting
  • Great synergy with HTML
  • Flexibility and combinability

The disadvantage of using PHP:

  • Security issues
  • Lack of specialized libraries
  • Lack of popularity

Java

Java is an exemplary, object-oriented programming language used for enterprise web applications commonly used to build android applications, desktop applications, and scientific applications. It runs on the "Write Once Run Anywhere" principle, meaning that the Java code can be executed on any platform without recompiling.

Java programming operates in two separate stages:

Stage 1) the Java code gets compiled into a machine-independent bytecode.

Stage 2) The byte code is run on a Java Virtual Machine, converting it into machine code to be executed on any platform.

Java also enables developers to create robust and scalable applications as it is a highly reliable and secure programming language. All these factors make Java an ideal choice for back-end web development.

Advantages of Java:

  • Easy to learn
  • Java is object-oriented
  • Platform-independent

A disadvantage of Java:

  • Slow to learn
  • No backup facility
  • Requires significant memory space
  • Verbose and complex codes

Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails, or just 'Ruby,' is a universal language used for various programming paradigms. It is a full-stack framework for front and back-end development, from rendering HTML templates, updating databases and sending and receiving emails to offering security protection against attacks. It is ideal for beginners that want to start back-end web development as it is relatively easy to learn. The benefit of Ruby is that it can increase a developer's productivity and speed up the web development process. Ruby is an excellent choice if you're looking for a language to help you build dynamic and scalable web applications. If you are a novice programmer, then Ruby might be a great language for you; it has a large community of developers that offer their knowledge, expertise and support.

Advantages of Ruby:

  • Consistency
  • Cost-effective
  • Promotes bug-free development
  • Scalable
  • A disadvantage of Ruby:
  • Slow runtime speed
  • Multithreading
  • Active-record

Go Lang

Go Lang is considered the top 5 most loved programming languages by developers worldwide. It was developed at Google and is a statistically typed programming language that enables developers to build scalable and secure web applications efficiently and quickly. One of the benefits of using Go is that it provides excellent support for multithreading. It comes with the garbage collection feature that allows automatic memory management, making it easier to work with data in a concurrent environment without any hassle. Moreover, it is an open-source programming language with a rich set of libraries that can be used for various applications.

Advantages of using Go Lang:

  • Easy to learn
  • Open source by nature
  • Garbage collected language
  • Static code analysis
  • It comes with the built-in testing tool
  • Fast language

Disadvantages of using Go Lang:

  • Still in development
  • Absence of manual memory management
  • Too simple
  • Error handling is not perfect
  • Runtime safety is not that great

C#

C# is one of those few languages that has constantly been ranking under the top 5 programming languages at various standard indices for the last few years—developed by Microsoft for the general purpose of the .Net framework. It is currently being used for back-end web development in multiple areas, including the development of windows applications, game development, etc. The language offers enriching features such as faster compilation, interoperability, scalable & updatable, component-oriented & structured language. These reasons are more than enough for beginners to choose C# as their first programming language. It has a minimal yet vast syntax, making it one of the easiest languages to learn and code in.

Advantages of C##:

  • Easy to write and understand
  • Has an extensive collection of libraries
  • Low cost
  • Fast execution speed
  • Portable
  • Easy debugging
  • Procedure-oriented language
  • Fast compilation

A disadvantage of C++:

  • Lack of object orientation
  • Inefficient memory management
  • No garbage collection
  • Runtime checking
  • Absence of namespace
  • Lacks constructor and destructor

The advantage of Deskree’s no-code platform

The Deskree No-code development is an attractive option, when you build an application using Deskree you are building it with code, without knowing a single line of coding.  The No-code development is achieved through a drag-and-drop interface that is created visually with the pre-built modules; making the development and delivery of an application swift and handy.

References:

Brian Eastwood  | June 18, 2020: “The 10 Most Popular Programming Languages to Learn in 2022 https://www.northeastern.edu/graduate/blog/most-popular-programming-languages/

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